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Artículos Recientes

XPS Study on the determination of binding energies in high-purity TiO2 nanoparticles
Fecha de publicación: 30/04/2024

This study focuses on the precise determination of the binding energies of high-purity TiO2 nano-particles, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). TiO2, an essential ceramic in high-tech sectors such as electronics, aerospace and photocatalysis, was analyzed in its pure state (99.5%) directly as received from the supplier, without previous alterations. XPS spectra revealed typical bond energy peaks for Ti at 458.42 eV and 464.13 eV, corresponding to Ti2p3/2 and Ti2p1/2 levels respectively, with a difference of 5.71 eV, validating the expected electron structure for Ti in TiO2. Additionally, peaks were identified at 457.36 eV and 463.36 eV, attributable to Ti3+, present in a Ti3O5 phase, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The midheight width (FWHM) of the main Ti4+ peaks, ranging from 1.08 to 1.87 eV, and 0.96 eV for the Ti3+ peaks, highlights the homogeneity and exceptional purity of the sample. These findings not only corroborate the high quality of TiO2, but…

Addition of sodium carbonate to reinforce unglazed ceramic tile
Fecha de publicación: 30/04/2024

Nowadays, the study of the improvement of mechanical properties is of great importance in the ceramic industry. The strenuous demand to which industrial processes are subjected leads to the search for new raw materials in the production lines that transfer superior characteristics to the finished product, standing out in the search for non-synthetic raw materials of mineral origin that contribute greater savings when added to the manufacturing process of the material. This study is focused on the use of sodium carbonate as an alternative raw material in the process of making ceramic tiles, sodium carbonate was obtained from two sources, one synthetic (soda ash) and the other mineral (trona). Within the research, additions of 0.15, 0.30, 0.45% of soda (Na2CO3) and 0.30, 0.60 and 0.90% of trona were made in the formulation of the ceramic body and properties such as density, compressive strength and modulus of rupture were evaluated. The results obtained indicate an improvement of up to…

Kinetic analysis of low-temperature MgAl2O4 formation from brucite with α-Al2O3 nanoparticles
Fecha de publicación: 30/04/2024

This paper presents a detailed analysis of the synthesis of spinel MgAl2O4, a material with key industrial applications, through the calcination of brucite and alumina. The study reveals that a longer heat treatment time at 960°C favors the formation of spinel with spherical morphology and reduces the presence of MgO in irregular agglomerates. XRD analyses confirm the progressive phase transformation, while SEM-EDS provides evidence of chemical composition. These findings support the use of the Avrami equation to model spinel formation kinetics and highlight the importance of optimizing calcination parameters to improve material properties. The study concludes with an improved route for the efficient production of MgAl2O4, which could significantly influence its application in demanding environments A. Oliva Gallegos1, R. Rodríguez Batista1, M. Hernández Reséndiz1, L. V. García Quiñonez2, C. Gómez Rodríguez3, D. Fernández González4, L. F. Verdeja González5 and G. A. Castillo…

Impact of renewable energies on the electromechanical phenomena of electricity grids
Fecha de publicación: 30/04/2024

At present, as in any industrial process, the generation of electricity is obliged to reduce polluting emissions into the environment. Therefore, the vast majority of governments are promoting the use of renewable generation sources mainly based on solar and wind energy. However, due to the low inertia characteristic of this type of electricity generation, the security of the grids is compromised, since in the presence of a severe disturbance there can be uncontrolled disconnections of generation plants, consumption centers and eventually the total collapse of the electrical system (blackout). Therefore, the present research work presents simulations in the time domain to graphically analyze the degradation of the security of electricity grids before the incorporation of renewable generation plants. To achieve this objective, a 3-generator, 9-node test system was used from the literature. Jorge Uriel Sevilla Romero1,*, Cristian Gómez Rodríguez1, Linda Viviana García Quiñonez2 and…

Determination of binding energies in high purity 2H graphite using XPS
Fecha de publicación: 30/04/2024

This study focuses on the detailed characterization of graphite, employing techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Graphite, a crucial material for engineering applications and advanced technologies, was analyzed in its pure state as provided by the manufacturer, without any pretreatment. XPS analysis revealed a spectrum dominated by carbon, with binding energies confirming the expected electronic structure and the presence of surface functional groups, including oxygen, silicon, and phosphorus. Although these impurities were identified, they do not appear to have affected the binding energies of the primary carbon, suggesting that their influence is confined to the surface properties and does not extend to the internal electronic structure of the graphite. XRD corroborated the high structural purity and detected a secondary SiP2O7 phase in minimal quantities.…

Carbon nanotubes: properties, synthesis and applications
Fecha de publicación: 30/04/2024

Carbon nanotubes (NTCs) represent one of the most intriguing and promising structures in the field of nanotechnology and materials science. Discovered in the 1990s, these hollow graphitic carbon cylinders possess unique mechanical, electrical, thermal, and chemical properties that make them suitable for a wide range of applications. Since their discovery, NTCs have revolutionized nu-merous fields, including electronics, medicine, materials engineering, and energy. The importance of NTCs lies not only in their exceptional properties but also in their potential to drive future tech-nological innovations. This monograph focuses on exploring the multifaceted nature of carbon nanotubes, covering their discovery, unique properties, synthesis methods, functionalization, ap-plications, and current challenges. The main objective is to provide an in-depth understanding of NTCs and highlight their transformative impact in various scientific and technological areas. Guadalupe Alan Castillo…

Biography / Biografía: Leticia Myriam Torres Guerra
Fecha de publicación: 30/04/2024

Born in Monterrey, Nuevo León, in 1955, Dr. Leticia Torres graduated with a degree in Industrial Chemistry from the Autonomous University of Nuevo León and earned her PhD in Advanced Ceramic Materials from the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1985. She holds a certification in Applied Renewable Energies and Energy Efficiency from Harvard University. Throughout her distinguished professional career, she has held key positions such as Deputy Director of Research at the Faculty of Chemical Sciences (1995-2001), Deputy Director of Scientific Development at CONACYT (2011-2013), Head of the Department of Eco-materials and Energy at the Faculty of Civil Engineering UANL (2005-2019), and leader of the Consolidated Academic Body "Development of Environmental Materials" from 2008 to the present. Since December 6, 2019, she has been serving as the General Director of the Center for Research in Advanced Materials (CIMAV). Por Guadalupe Alan Castillo Rodríguez

Use of statistical tools to evaluate the wear of polymeric coatings used in the silver-manganese leaching agitators of Procesadora Industrial Río Seco S.A. (Compañía de Minas Buenaventura S.A.A.)
Fecha de publicación: 31/12/2023

This paper presents an analysis, based on statistical methods, of how the wear of five polymeric coatings occurs on the blades of high-intensity agitators used for silver-manganese leaching. To contextualize the problem, it can be pointed out that currently 4 agitators are used that operate in series and consist of a neoprene coating, which needs to be replaced every 3 months during maintenance operations due to the severe wear and tear it experiences. This translates into in-creased maintenance costs and problems in operating conditions, including mechanical failures and lower silver recoveries. To quantify and collect data on erosion, abrasion, and abrasion-corrosion wear (tribology), laboratory tests were carried out with the same mineral from the plant, and a laboratory stirrer coated with the five polymers under study was used: hypalon, natural rubber, EPDM, silicone, and neoprene itself. Testing was conducted in accordance with ASTM D5963. The wear trends obtained for the 5…

The Carbon Dioxide Molecule: Responsible or Innocent? Reflections on the Role of CO2 in Global Warming
Fecha de publicación: 31/12/2023

The CO2 molecule seems to play a relevant role in the climate change that the planet is experiencing because: there seems to be a correlation between the increase in the average temperature of the planet and the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere; and, that a layer of this gas in the atmos-phere would prevent the exit of part of the solar radiation that reaches the Earth from the Sun (as occurs in a greenhouse). However, is it only this molecule that is responsible for global warming? This work aims to shed greater visibility on the true role that the CO2 molecule may be playing in climate change and global warming, and to raise awareness that efforts should focus not only on this molecule, but that there are others that would have an even greater impact and to which not much attention is paid. To do this, the corresponding balances of matter and energy are taken as a starting point, to try to shed some light on the problems that arise, and to influence those factors that would…

Thin films study of crystallinity of Antimony Sulfide (Sb2S3) by chemical bath and thermal treatment with CO2 laser
Fecha de publicación: 31/12/2023

This research proposes a study of thin films of antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) using a new CO2 laser synthesis technique. Sb2S3 thin films were deposited in a chemical bath varying deposition time of 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. Subsequently, the thin films were heat-treated by means of a continuous CO2 laser, varying the power (5W and 6W) and the translation times. The laser induced crystallinity in the thin films after the chemical bath was applied. Morphology, microstructure, and molecular vibrations were studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AMM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman Spectroscopy, respectively. The results indicated that thin films of Sb2S3 with a uniform layer and good adhesion to the substrate were obtained; achieving a rearrangement in its crystal structure by means of CO2 laser heat treatment. The 45-minute sample at 5W was the one with the best results. G. Castillo-Aguilar1, L.V. García-Quiñonez2, D. Fernández-González3, Luis Felipe Vedeja4, G.A. Castillo-Rodríguez5 y…

XPS study on determination of binding energy in high purity Ag
Fecha de publicación: 31/12/2023

The present study focuses on the precise determination of the binding energy of high-purity silver using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique, a critical element in high-tech appli-cations such as electronics, aerospace, and defense. The silver used, with a certified purity of 99.99%, was analyzed without previous alterations to ensure that the results reflected its authentic state as received from the supplier. XPS spectra showed binding energy peaks characteristic of pure metal at 368.18 eV and 374.18 eV for levels 3d5/2 and 3d3/2, respectively, with a difference of 6 eV corroborating the expected electron structure for metallic silver. The observed half-height width (FWHM) of 0.9 eV underscores the exceptional homogeneity and purity of the sample. This binding energy data not only confirms the high quality of silver, but also provides an essential benchmark for the scientific community, allowing detailed comparisons with other samples and contributing to the…

Science topic the alpha ladder: forging the elements of the universe
Fecha de publicación: 31/12/2023

At the heart of massive stars, a fascinating nuclear process known as the alpha ladder is taking place, essential for the formation of elements heavier than helium and fundamental to under-standing stellar evolution and the composition of the universe. This process begins with the phe-nomenon known as the triple alpha process, where three helium nuclei fuse together to form a carbon nucleus. As it progresses, the carbon and other resulting elements capture more alpha par-ticles, forming progressively heavier elements, from oxygen to nickel-56. The alpha ladder is not only key in elemental transmutation, but it is also vital to the stability of stars. The energy released in these nuclear reactions, mainly in the form of gamma rays, provides the pressure needed to coun-teract gravity, maintaining stellar balance. However, this process has its limitations and stops at nickel-56, given that the fusion of heavier elements consumes more energy than it releases, even-tually leading to stellar…

Biography / Biografía: Carlos Javier Lizcano Zulaica
Fecha de publicación: 31/12/2023

He was born on July 24, 1951, in Monterrey, N. L., Mexico to his parents Luis Lizcano and Andrea Zulaica. With his wife, Laura Elena Wong, he formed a beautiful family with his children Carlos Javier and Israel and his grandchildren Mateo Israel, Rebeca, and Sol Abigail. He completed his basic training at the Monumental Nuevo León Primary School from 1957 to 1963 and at the Secondary School # 1 from 1963 to 1966 in the city of Monterrey, N.L. Mexico. He completed his high school education at High School # 1, Colegio Civil Bachilleres from 1966 to 1968. He completed his professional career from 1968 to 1973 at the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Mexico, where he obtained the title of Mechanical Electrical Engineer. In 1996 he obtained his Master of Science degree from the same university. In 2000, with the thesis "Mechanical and microstructural behavior of double-phase steels", he obtained his PhD in Materials Engineering at the Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Mexico. Por…

Biography / Biografía: Guadalupe Evaristo Cedillo Garza
Fecha de publicación: 31/12/2023

He was born on October 26, 1934. In 1961 he obtained his degree in Mechanical Engineering and in 1963 his degree in Mathematics. He subsequently earned his Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering in 1974. He entered the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León as a professor in 1957 and in the same year received his appointment as Ordinary Teacher of the same University. In 1960 he received his appointment as a Full-Time Master in the Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering at the same University. Por Guadalupe Alan Castillo Rodríguez

Iron through the ages
Fecha de publicación: 18/09/2023

In this work, the authors aim to account for the events of the past 3500 years during which iron, initially, and steel, subsequently, have been fundamental elements of history. Throughout the document, concepts of recent importance are introduced, such as decarbonization, associated with the energy transition applied to the iron and steel industry, or the concept of the steel's useful lifespan, which allows us to explore the recyclability of this alloy. Thus, drawing on historical facts and realities, this document advocates for a promising future for metal and its alloys, all in spite of the uncertainties and changes that occur both in the economic framework and in modern science and technologies. Daniel Fernández-González 1, Cristian Gómez-Rodríguez 2, Guadalupe Alan Castillo Rodríguez 3 y Luis Felipe Verdeja González 4,*

Science Topic. From the Atom to the Universe: discoveries and applications in Nuclear Physics
Fecha de publicación: 15/09/2023

Nuclear physics, from its theoretical roots with Einstein to its contemporary practical applications, presents itself as a promising tool to face current energy challenges. The article addresses the journey of this science, from the declined concept of ether, through fission and its implications, to the promise of fusion, imitating the process of the sun. Through advanced techniques, the obtaining of nuclear fuels and the potential of their use are highlighted. But beyond its technical capacity, the article highlights the importance of scientific dissemination and understanding. An informed society is essential to ethically harness nuclear power and contribute to a more sustainable future. In summary, the paper illuminates how nuclear physics, with its potential and challenges, can be essential in building an energyequitable and environmentally harmonious world. Guadalupe Alan Castillo Rodríguez 1,*

Reduction of the Band Gap in the Fe2O3-Mg(OH)2 system
Fecha de publicación: 15/09/2023

In this study, the optical properties of brucite-doped hematite were investigated using advanced analytical techniques. Hematite and brucite powders with particle sizes smaller than 10 microme-ters were mixed and, after obtaining a homogeneous mixture in a type "V" mixer, the samples were subjected to a heat treatment at 960°C for 2 hours. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and UV-Vis spectroscopy were performed. The results revealed variations in surface chemical composition and a dominant presence of iron, with evidence of doping forming secondary phases. Additionally, a decrease in the Band Gap was observed compared to nondoped hematite, suggesting a potential increase in photocatalytic properties. In conclusion, doping and heat treatment of hematite offer an improvement in photocatalytic efficiency, highlighting its potential in light absorption and applications in…

Biography / Biografía: Luis Eugenio Todd Pérez
Fecha de publicación: 15/09/2023

He was born in Monterrey Nuevo León, on October 22, 1935. He did his professional studies at the Autonomous University of Nuevo León, for which he is a Surgeon. He completed his postgraduate studies (residencies) at the Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición, in Mexico City; at Cornell University in New York; Georgetown, in Washington, and Washington University School of Medicine, in St. Louis, Missouri, the latter three in the United States Por Juan Roberto Zavala

Influence of phases on Urbach energy in Fe2O3-MgO systems
Fecha de publicación: 13/09/2023

Understanding the properties of metal oxides is critical for various technological applications. This work addresses the detailed study of binary mixtures of metal oxides, specifically Fe2O3 and MgO, using brucite as a precursor and analyzed by XRD and UV-vis spectroscopy. A clear correlation was identified between the proportion of components and their structural and optical properties. The Urbach energy (Eu) showed a range extending from 0.00 eV for 100% MgO (M-1) to 0.231 eV for 75% Fe2O3 with 25% MgO(M-4). In parallel, bandgap energy (Eg) shifted from a high value of 3.934 eV in M-1 to a low of 1.828 eV in M-4. The XRD analysis showed that while M-1 is essentially MgO, samples M-2 to M-4 exhibit a diversity of phases. Particularly, M-4 stands out for its complexity, integrating phases such as Magnesioferrite, Periclase, Kirschsteinite and Spinels. These data suggest that the addition of Fe2O3 significantly modifies both the structure and optical properties. Based on these…

Biography / Biografía: Luis Felipe Verdeja González
Fecha de publicación: 31/08/2023

Luis Felipe Verdeja González, university professor, scientific researcher and technical advisor of industries was born in Oviedo (Asturias). He graduated in Chemistry from the University of Oviedo in 1975, and also holds a PhD in Chemistry from the University of Oviedo in 1980. Later he moved to Mexico where he worked as Technical Advisor and Head of Quality Control of Imperial Eastman de Mexico S. A. (Nacobre Group) from November 1981 to July 1983.

Development of a MgO-doped η-Al2O3 refractory / Desarrollo de un refractario de MgO dopado con η-Al2O3
Fecha de publicación: 30/04/2023

The effect of nanoparticles of α-Al2O3 (up to 5 % by weight) on the physical, mechanical and thermal properties, as well as on the microstructural evolution of a dense magnesia refractory is studied. Sintering temperatures are used at 1300°C, 1500°C and 1600°C. The physical properties of interest were apparent density and porosity, which were evaluated using Archimedes' method. Thermal properties were examined by differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical behavior was studied by tests of resistance to cold crushing and micro hardness. Finally, the microstructure and qualitative mineralogical characteristics were studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The increase in sintering temperature resulted in improved density and reduced apparent porosity. However, as the nanoparticle content of α-Al2O3 increased, the density and microhardness decreased. Microstructural observations showed that the presence of α-Al2O3 nanoparticles in the…

MgO–ZrO2 base compounds for silicomanganese production / Compuestos base MgO–ZrO2 para producción de silicomanganeso
Fecha de publicación: 30/04/2023

Deterioration of the refractory lining represents a significant problem for the proper functioning of the ferroalloy industry, particularly in the production of silicomanganese, due to the periodic replacement requirements of the damaged refractory. In this context, magnesia refractories are commonly used in the critical areas of furnaces used in silicomanganese production, since the slag involved in the process has a basic character. The behavior of ceramic compounds MgO-ZrO2 with different nanoparticles of ZrO2 (0, 1, 3 and 5% by weight) in the presence of silicomanganese slags is proposed in this manuscript. XPS, XRD and SEM-EDX were used to evaluate the properties of the ceramic compound against silicomanganese slag. The static corrosion test was used to evaluate the corrosion of the refractory. The results suggest that corrosion is controlled by the change in slag viscosity due to the reaction between CaZrO3 and molten slag. In addition, ZrO2 nanoparticles located at both the…

Phase synthesis from brucite with TiO2 additions / Síntesis de fases desde brucita con adiciones de TiO2
Fecha de publicación: 30/04/2023

This paper studies the phases in the Mg-Ti-O system through the 1:1 formulation of MgO:TiO2 mixing synthetic brucite of Mexican origin with high purity TiO2 microparticles and with a heat treatment at 960°C for 1 h. The raw materials and formulation are characterized by XPS and XRD techniques. The results demonstrate the presence of different oxidation states in titania and the formation of different oxides in the Mg-Ti-O system when mixed and calcined at 960°C; Additionally, the formation of vacancies in the crystal lattice during the transformation from hexagonal brucite to magnesia with cubic structure centered on the faces is estimated. The results show its thermal behavior based on the MgO-TiO2 phase diagram.

Engineering Topic: Traditional energies vs. Alternative energies, a more sustainable and clean future / Tópico de Ingeniería: Energías tradicionales vs. Energías alternativas, un futuro más sostenible y limpio
Fecha de publicación: 30/04/2023

We explore ideas, solutions, and technologies to protect our planet and ensure a greener future for generations to come. We address a crucial issue in the fight against climate change and in the search for a more sustainable energy future. We analyze the differences between traditional and alternative energy sources, compare their energy efficiency, costs and impacts on the atmosphere. In the end, we discussed what would be the best solution to improve the environment and reduce our carbon footprint. Initially, we briefly discussed traditional energies and alternative energies. Traditional energies, such as coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear power, have been the main sources of energy worldwide for decades. Although these energy sources have boosted economic growth and development, they have also caused several environmental problems, such as greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution. On the other hand, alternative energies, such as solar, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal and biomass,…

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La revista científica "EYA ACADEMY: Revista de Divulgación en Materiales" tiene como objetivo principal la publicación de investigaciones académicas de alta calidad dentro de la comunidad científica internacional. Nuestra misión es promover los logros científicos de investigadores y estudiantes de pregrado y posgrado, así como fomentar la inclusión y el interés en carreras basadas en la investigación. La revista científica EYA ACADEMY, Revista de Divulgación en Materiales tiene como objetivo principal la publicación de investigaciones académicas de alta calidad dentro de la comunidad científica internacional. Nuestra misión es promover los logros científicos de investigadores y estudiantes de pregrado y posgrado, así como fomentar la inclusión y el interés en carreras basadas en la investigación.

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Compuestos base MgO-ZrO2 para producción de silicomanganeso

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